A Multi Agent-Based Optimisation Model for the Distribution Planning and Control of Energy-Based Intermittent Renewable Sources

Nooria Mohammed, Ammar Al Bazi

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Recent work on the management of renewable energy sources focuses on developing innovative tools and techniques to control the different behaviours of energy generation systems (eg, the intermittent production of wind power). These tools contribute to achieving a proper balance between energy supply and consumer demand and guarantee a sustainable energy level in storage devices that can face potential generation shortages. In contrast, previous studies mainly focused on stimulating consumer response to market prices so as to rationalise consumption, especially during peak periods. This study investigates the impact of supplier decisions about using different renewable energy sources on the distribution planning and control of energy for the best consumer demand satisfaction and achieving a sustainable energy level in different located storage devices. A Multi Agent-Based Heuristic Optimisation model is developed to deliver this aim. The heuristic optimisation part of this model is proposed to optimise the energy level across differently located storage devices. It also guarantees the best energy exchange between regions at the strategic planning level. A sensitivity analysis study is conducted to verify the behaviour of the proposed model towards various demand levels, followed by a comparison study to justify the proposed agent-based heuristic model's superiority. The results highlight the impact of using intermittent renewable sources including solar, wind, hydro and storage devices on energy production, control and distribution. In addition, a sustainable level of storage in devices placed at different locations is achieved by optimising the energy storage operation. This sustainable storage aids any insufficient energy generated from intermittent sources to satisfy consumer requirements. The best energy exchange between regions is also presented.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19316-19330
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Energy Research
Issue number13
Early online date18 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 25 Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Mohammed, N & Al Bazi, A 2021, 'A Multi Agent-Based Optimisation Model for the Distribution Planning and Control of Energy-Based Intermittent Renewable Sources', International Journal of Energy Research, vol. 45, no. 13, pp. 19316-19330., which has been published in final form at 10.1002/er.7044. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.


  • agent-based optimisation
  • distribution planning and control
  • renewable energy network
  • renewable energy sources
  • storage device

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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