A Method to Calculate the AIS Trauma Score from a Finite Element Model

Christophe Bastien, Clive Neal Sturgess, Jesper Christensen, Lianjie Wen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In the real world, traumatic injuries are measured using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), which is a risk to life scale. Crash test dummies and current human computer models use stresses and strains to evaluate whether serious or fatal injuries are reached, unfortunately these metrics bear no direct relation to AIS. This paper proposes to overcome this deficiency and suggests a unique Organ Trauma Model (OTM) able to calculate the risk to life based on the severity on any organ injury, focussing on real-life pedestrian accidents. The OTM uses a power method, named Peak Virtual Power (PVP), and calculates the risk to life of brain white and grey matters as a function of impact direction and impact speed. The OTM model has been tested against four real-life pedestrian accidents and proven to be able to predict pedestrian head trauma severity. In some cases, the method did however under-estimate the head trauma by 1 AIS level, because of post-impact haemorrhage which cannot be captured with the employed Lagrangian Finite Element solver used. It is also shown that the location of the injury predictions using PVP coincide with the post mortem reports and are significantly different to the predictions made using maximum principal strain.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberJMMB-D-19-00123R3
Pages (from-to)(In-press)
JournalJournal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 24 Aug 2020

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  • Research Output

    The Use of Peak Virtual Power to Model Human Organ Trauma in Automotive Accidents

    Bastien, C., Sturgess, C. N., Davies, H. & Wellings, R., 18 Sep 2019.

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceOther

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