A health policy analysis of the implementation of the National Tobacco Control Act in Nigeria

Echezona Ejike Udokanma, Ikedinachi Ogamba, Cajetan Ilo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
322 Downloads (Pure)


Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have emerged as a public health issue of concern in Nigeria. The massive increase in tobacco use amongst different population groups is a common NCDs risk factor. To this effect, the National Tobacco Control Act (NTCA) was enacted following the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This article conducts a health policy agenda-setting analysis of the NTCA using the Kingdon's multiple streams model and analyses its implementation using the Principal-Agent theory. The purposive and snowballing sampling methods were used to select and review relevant peer-review literature. Other data sources included gray literature, government reports, Non-Governmental Organization briefs and media resources. Though NTCA conforms to WHO FCTC, Nigeria only domesticated her obligation to this framework legislatively while the executive and administrative measures were found lacking. The challenges and gaps identified in the NTCA implementation include; revision of textual health warnings and lack of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs, poor taxation, and the National Tobacco Control Commission's (NTCC) lack of regulatory autonomy, hence, the poor policy implementation reported in this article. To effectively implement NTCA, a review of textual warnings, enforcement of pictorial warnings, regulatory autonomy of the NTCC and review of the tobacco taxation are suggested to help in the prevention and control of NCDs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)484-492
Number of pages9
JournalHealth Policy and Planning
Issue number4
Early online date4 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - 17 May 2021

Bibliographical note

This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced version of an article accepted for publication in Health Policy and Planning, following peer review. The version of record Udokanma, EE, Ogamba, I & Ilo, C 2021, 'A health policy analysis of the implementation of the National Tobacco Control Act in Nigeria', Health Policy and Planning, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 484-492. is available online at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czaa175

Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author(s) and/ or other copyright owners. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders.


  • Non-communicable diseases
  • agenda setting
  • multiple streams model
  • policy analysis
  • principal-agent theory
  • tobacco control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy


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