We present a sensing system operating at millimetre (mm) waves in transmission mode that can measure glucose level changes based on the complex permittivity changes across the signal path. The permittivity of a sample can change significantly as the concentration of one of its substances varies: for example, blood permittivity depends on the blood glucose levels. The proposed sensing system uses two facing microstrip patch antennas operating at 60 GHz, which are placed across interrogated samples. The measured transmission coefficient depends on the permittivity change along the signal path, which can be correlated to the change in concentration of a substance. Along with theoretical estimations, we experimentally demonstrate the sensing performance of the system using controlled laboratory samples, such as water-based glucose-loaded liquid samples. We also present results of successful glucose spike detection in humans during an in-vivo Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT). The system could eventually be developed into a non-invasive glucose monitor for continuous monitoring of glucose levels for people living with diabetes, as it can detect as small as 1.33 mmol/l (0.025 wt%) glucose concentrations in the controlled water-based samples satisfactorily, which is well below the typical human glucose levels of 4 mmol/l.
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