A Glucose Sensing System Based on Transmission Measurements at Millimetre Waves using Micro strip Patch Antennas

Shimul C. Saha, Helena Cano-Garcia, Ioannis Sotiriou, Oliver Lipscombe, Ioannis Gouzouasis, Maria Koutsoupidou, George Palikaras, Richard Mackenzie, Thomas Reeve, Panagiotis Kosmas, Efthymios Kallos

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Abstract

We present a sensing system operating at millimetre (mm) waves in transmission mode that can measure glucose level changes based on the complex permittivity changes across the signal path. The permittivity of a sample can change significantly as the concentration of one of its substances varies: for example, blood permittivity depends on the blood glucose levels. The proposed sensing system uses two facing microstrip patch antennas operating at 60 GHz, which are placed across interrogated samples. The measured transmission coefficient depends on the permittivity change along the signal path, which can be correlated to the change in concentration of a substance. Along with theoretical estimations, we experimentally demonstrate the sensing performance of the system using controlled laboratory samples, such as water-based glucose-loaded liquid samples. We also present results of successful glucose spike detection in humans during an in-vivo Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT). The system could eventually be developed into a non-invasive glucose monitor for continuous monitoring of glucose levels for people living with diabetes, as it can detect as small as 1.33 mmol/l (0.025 wt%) glucose concentrations in the controlled water-based samples satisfactorily, which is well below the typical human glucose levels of 4 mmol/l.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6855
Number of pages141
JournalScientific Reports
Volume76
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Funder

Tis work was fnancially supported in part by Innovate UK under Projects 131618 and 132040

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