A Glossary for Research on Human Crowd Dynamics

Juliane Adrian, Martyn Amos, Mitra Baratchi , Mira Beermann, Nikolai Bode, Maik Boltes, Alessandro Corbetta , Guillaume Dezecache, John Drury, Zhijian Fu, Roland Geraerts, Steve Gwynne , Gesine Hofinger, Aoife Hunt, Tinus Kanters, Angelika Kneidl, Krisztina Konya, Gerta Koster, Mira Kupper, Georgios MichalareasFergus Neville, Evangelos Ntontis, Stephen Reicher, Enrico Ronchi, Andreas Schadschneider, Armin Seyfried, Alastair Shipman, Anna Sieben, Michael Spearpoint, Gavin Brent Sullivan, Anne Templeton , Federico Toschi, Natalie van der Wal, Frank van Schadewijk, Cornelia von Kruchten, Nanda Wijermans , Zeynep Yucel , Francesco Zanlungo, Iker Zuriguel

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    This article presents a glossary of terms that are frequently used in research on human crowds. This topic is inherently multidisciplinary as it includes work in and across computer science, engineering, mathematics, physics, psychology and social science, for example. We do not view the glossary presented here as a collection of finalised and formal definitions. Instead, we suggest it is a snapshot of current views and the starting point of an ongoing process that we hope will be useful in providing some guidance on the use of terminology to develop a mutual understanding across disciplines. The glossary was developed collaboratively during a multidisciplinary meeting. We deliberately allow several definitions of terms, to reflect the confluence of disciplines in the field. This also reflects the fact not all contributors necessarily agree with all definitions in this glossary.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article numberA19
    Number of pages13
    JournalCollective Dynamics
    Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2019

    Bibliographical note

    This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


    • Agency (collective)
    • Agent
    • Behaviour (collective)
    • Bottlenecki
    • Capacity
    • Clogging, Arching
    • Cognitive Maps
    • Collective action
    • Crowd
    • Emotions (group-based and collective)
    • Evacuation
    • Flow
    • Fundamental diagram
    • Group
    • Group coordination
    • Hand calculation
    • Lane formation
    • Model (general, acceleration-based, agent-based, cellular automata, computational, conceptual, deterministic, empirical, formal, hybrid, macroscopic, machine learning, mesoscopic, microscopic, multi-scale, probabilistic or stochastic, velocity-based)
    • Navigation mesh
    • Network
    • Others
    • Pedestrian
    • Phenomenon (collective)
    • Pitch invasion
    • Queing
    • Rituals
    • Routing
    • Social appraisal, social transfer, social spread
    • Social identity
    • Social norm
    • Social relation
    • Trajectory
    • Wayfinding


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