A framework for engaging stakeholders on the management of alien species

Ana Novoa, Ross Shackleton, Susan Canavan, Cathleen Cybèle, Sarah Davies, Katharina Dehnen-Schmutz, Jana Fried, Mirijam Gaertner, Sjirk Geerts, Charles Griffiths, Haylee Kaplan, Sabrina Kumschick, David Le Maitre, John Measey, Ana L. Nunes, David M Richardson, Tamara B Robinson, Julia Touza, John R.U. Wilson

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    135 Citations (Scopus)
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    Alien species can have major ecological and socioeconomic impacts in their novel ranges and so effective management actions are needed. However, management can be contentious and create conflicts, especially when stakeholders who benefit from alien species are different from those who incur costs. Such conflicts of interests mean that management strategies can often not be implemented. There is, therefore, increasing interest in engaging stakeholders affected by alien species or by their management. Through a facilitated workshop and consultation process including academics and managers working on a variety of organisms and in different areas (urban and rural) and ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic), we developed a framework for engaging stakeholders in the management of alien species. The proposed framework for stakeholder engagement consists of 12 steps: (1) identify stakeholders; (2) select key stakeholders for engagement; (3) explore key stakeholders’ perceptions and develop initial aims for management; (4) engage key stakeholders in the development of a draft management strategy; (5) re-explore key stakeholders’ perceptions and revise the aims for management; (6) co-design general aims, management objectives and time frames with key stakeholders; (7) co-design a management strategy; (8) encourage stakeholders’ ownership of the strategy and adapt as required; and (9) implement the strategy and monitor management actions to evaluate the need for additional or future actions. In case additional management is needed after these actions take place, some extra steps should be taken: (10) identify any new stakeholders, benefits, and costs; (11) monitor engagement; and (12) revise management strategy. Overall, we believe that our framework provides an effective approach to minimise the impact of conflicts created by alien species management.

    Publisher Statement: NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Environmental Management. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Environmental Management, [205, (2017)] DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.09.059

    © 2017, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)286-297
    Number of pages12
    JournalJournal of Environmental Management
    Early online date9 Oct 2017
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018


    • Biological Invasions
    • Conflicts of interests
    • Invasive species management
    • Perceptions
    • Stakeholder ownership
    • Environmental management


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