A FEA simulation study of ball end mill for fixed 3+1 / 3+2 axis machining of Ti-6Al-4V

Arivazhagan Anbalagan, Eakambaram Arumugam, Anthony Xavior Michael

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation study conducted on ball endmill for fixed 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 axis orientations for machining Ti-6Al-4 V. This work adopts a tungsten carbide (WC) ∅18.6 mm diametrical/6fluted ball endmill to analyse maximum principal elastic strain (ϵmax-max-principal-elastic), maximum principal stress (σmax-principal)along with cutting tools forces in the axial (Fz), radial (Fy), tangential (Fx) and total (Ftotal) directions. The machining orientations considered for 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 axis are (i) tilt angles of 5°, 10°, 15° & 20° and (ii) lead angles of 5°, 10° & 15° with a constant fixed tilt angle of 10°. The cutting speed and feed rate per tooth is taken as 450 m/min and 0.5 mm/tooth. These are based on a high speed machining (HSM) scenario and has been dynamically simulated for a maximum of 175,000 cycles. From the simulation study considered at 16-20 valid cutting points, it can be noticed that in 3 + 1 axis, for a tilt angle of 10° and 3 + 2 axis for a Tilt 10°/Lead 10° the σmax-principaland ϵmax-max-principal-elasticare higher when compared with all tilt/lead angles. In case of total forces (Ftotal) from all 3 directions (Fx, Fyand Fz) not much variation can be noticed for different tilt/lead angles, but higher values are recorded with 3 + 1 axis at 5° tilt angle and 3 + 2 axis at tilt/lead angle of 10°. The paper provides a critical comparative study on the 3 + 1/ 3 + 2 axis orientations highlighting the cutting strain/stress with tool forces at valid cutting points considering entry, middle and exit region of the blank by emphasizing the importance of cutting tool design parameters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7803-7814
Number of pages12
JournalMaterials Today: Proceedings
Issue numberPart 17
Early online date6 Mar 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 6 Mar 2021
Externally publishedYes
Event3rd International Conference on Materials, Manufacturing and Modelling, ICMMM 2021 - Vellore, India
Duration: 19 Mar 202121 Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Funding Information: Ms. Anusmita Chakravorty is thankful to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India for financial support through fellowship. Dr. Budhi Singh is grateful to the Department of Science and Technology of India for a fellowship and research grant under the DST-INSPIRE Faculty award program (No. IFA14-PH-109 ). Help received from Mr. Kedarmal during the experiment using low energy ion beam is highly acknowledged.


  • 3+1/3+2 axis
  • Finite element analysis
  • Machining
  • Stresses & strains
  • Ti-6Al-4V
  • Tilt/Lead angle
  • Tool forces

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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