A Fast and Parametric Torque Distribution Strategy for Four-Wheel-Drive Energy-Efficient Electric Vehicles

Arash Moradinegade Dizqah, B. Lenzo, A. Sorniotti, P. Gruber, S. Fallah, J. De Smet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

115 Citations (Scopus)
63 Downloads (Pure)


Electric vehicles with four individually controlled drivetrains are over-actuated systems and therefore the total wheel torque and yaw moment demands can be realized through an infinite number of feasible wheel torque combinations. Hence, the energy-efficient torque distribution among the four drivetrains is crucial for reducing the drivetrain power losses and extending driving range. In this paper, the reference torque distribution is formulated as the solution of a parametric optimization problem, depending on vehicle speed. An analytical solution is provided for the case of equal drivetrains on the front and rear axles, under the experimentally confirmed hypothesis that the drivetrain power losses are monotonically increasing with the torque demand. The easily implementable and computationally fast wheel torque distribution algorithm is validated by simulations and experiments on an electric vehicle demonstrator, along driving cycles and cornering maneuvers. The results show considerable energy savings compared to alternative torque distribution strategies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4367 - 4376
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Issue number7
Early online date10 Mar 2016
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2016

Bibliographical note

Published under Gold Open Access

Sponsored by IEEE Industrial Electronics Society

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  • Electric vehicle
  • torque distribution
  • control allocation
  • power loss
  • experiments


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