Fuel cell based combined heat and power (FC-CHP) system that has high energy efficiency while no carbon emissions is a promising distributed energy solution in south of China where is no central heating in the winter but very high power demand. Dealing with the coupling heat and power generation, a decoupling strategy that could satisfy both the thermal/electricity demand meanwhile realize system energy economy is essential. The single-demand-led strategy that either heat-led mode or power-led mode is generally used to decouple the heat/power generations but may loss part of the high efficiency working range of the CHP system. Moreover, the key part of the FC-CHP that the fuel cell may suffer significate degradation in aforementioned methods as ignoring CHP system switching flexibility between heat and power. To address this deficiency, first, a dynamic heat/power switching strategy is developed where FC-CHP is not limited in single-led mode but could choose its output power autonomously with the consideration of fuel cell degradation to improving the users’ profits. Also, a new energy management strategy is proposed based on a hierarchical game that Stackelberg theory against the internal price-based demand response, where the energy system operator (ESO) acts as the leader and FC-CHP users are the followers, aiming at maximizing the benefit of all stakeholders. The proposed EMS with the dynamic switching strategy of FC-CHP are verified by a practical example in Jiangsu province in south of China benefiting in fuel cell degradation reduction and energy consumption economy.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by the National Key Research and Development Program of China under Grant 2021YFB2501504, and in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 52172354.
- fuel cell
- dynamic switching strategy
- combined heat and power
- game theory
- fuel cell degradation