A comprehensive analytical model for laser powder-fed additive manufacturing

Yuze Huang, Mir Behrad Khamesee, Ehsan Toyserkani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

94 Citations (Scopus)


This paper addresses a comprehensive analytical model for the laser powder-fed additive manufacturing (LPF-AM) process, also known as directed energy deposition AM. The model analytically couples the moving laser beam with Gaussian energy distribution, the powder stream and the semi-infinite substrate together, while considering the attenuated laser power intensity distribution, the heated powder spatial distribution and the melt pool 3D shape with its boundary variation. The particles concentration on transverse plane is modeled with Gaussian distribution based on optical measurement. The model can effectively be used for process development/optimization and controller design, while predicting adequate clad geometry as well as the catchment efficiency rapidly. Experimental validation through the deposition of Inconel 625 proves the model can accurately predict the clad geometry and catchment efficiency in the range of specific energy that is corresponding to high clad quality (maximum percentage difference is 6.2% for clad width, 7.8% for clad height and 6.8% for catchment efficiency).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)90-99
Number of pages10
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
Issue numberPart A
Early online date30 Jul 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016
Externally publishedYes


The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and China Scholarship Council (CSC) .


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Analytical model
  • Directed energy deposition
  • Laser powder-fed additive manufacturing
  • Powder spatial distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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