A comparison of mixture toxicity assessment: Examining the chronic toxicity of atrazine, permethrin and chlorothalonil in mixtures to Ceriodaphnia cf. Dubia

Y. L. Phyu, C. G. Palmer, M. S.J. Warne, G. C. Hose, J. C. Chapman, R. P. Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pesticides predominantly occur in aquatic ecosystems as mixtures of varying complexity, yet relatively few studies have examined the toxicity of pesticide mixtures. Atrazine, chlorothalonil and permethrin are widely used pesticides that have different modes of action. This study examined the chronic toxicities (7-d reproductive impairment) of these pesticides in binary and ternary mixtures to the freshwater cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia. The toxicity of the mixtures was compared to that predicted by the independent action (IA) model for mixtures, as this is the most appropriate model for chemicals with different modes of action. Following this they were compared to the toxicity predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model for mixtures. According to the IA model, the toxicity of the chlorothalonil plus atrazine mixture conformed to antagonism, while that of chlorothalonil and permethrin conformed to synergism. The toxicity of the atrazine and permethrin mixture as well as the ternary mixture conformed to IA implying there was either no interaction between the components of these mixtures and/or in the case of the ternary mixture the interactions cancelled each other out to result in IA. The synergistic and antagonistic mixtures deviated from IA by factors greater than 3 and less than 2.5, respectively. When the toxicity of the mixtures was compared to the predictions of the CA model, the binary mixture of chlorothalonil plus atrazine, permethrin plus atrazine and the ternary mixture all conformed to antagonism, while the binary mixture of chlorothalonil plus permethrin conformed to CA. Using the CA model provided estimates of mixture toxicity that did not markedly underestimate the measured toxicity, unlike the IA model, and therefore the CA model is the most suitable to use in ecological risk assessments of these pesticides.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1568-1573
Number of pages6
JournalChemosphere
Volume85
Issue number10
Early online date16 Sep 2011
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

tetrachloroisophthalonitrile
Permethrin
Atrazine
permethrin
Herbicides
atrazine
Pesticides
Toxicity
toxicity
pesticide
antagonism
Chemical Models
Fresh Water
Ecosystem
synergism
comparison
chlorothalonil
Binary mixtures

Keywords

  • Atrazine
  • Ceriodaphnia
  • Chlorothalonil
  • Chronic toxicity
  • Mixture toxicity
  • Permethrin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

A comparison of mixture toxicity assessment : Examining the chronic toxicity of atrazine, permethrin and chlorothalonil in mixtures to Ceriodaphnia cf. Dubia. / Phyu, Y. L.; Palmer, C. G.; Warne, M. S.J.; Hose, G. C.; Chapman, J. C.; Lim, R. P.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 85, No. 10, 01.11.2011, p. 1568-1573.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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