Flows in manholes are complex and may include swirling and recirculation flow with significant turbulence and vorticity. However, how these complex 3D flow patterns could generate different energy losses and so affect flow quantity in the wider sewer network is unknown. In this work, 2D3C stereo Particle Image Velocimetry measurements are made in a surcharged scaled circular manhole. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model in OpenFOAM® with four different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) turbulence model is constructed using a volume of fluid model, to represent flows in this manhole. Velocity profiles and pressure distributions from the models are compared with the experimental data in view of finding the best modelling approach. It was found among four different RANS models that the re-normalisation group (RNG) k-ε and k-ω shear stress transport (SST) gave a better approximation for velocity and pressure.
- RANS model
- Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)
- Volume Of Fluid (VOF)