A comparative analysis of process safety management (PSM) systems in the process industry

Chizaram Dagogo Nwankwo, Stephen Theophilus, Andrew Arewa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
1506 Downloads (Pure)


The root cause of most accidents in the process industry has been attributed to process safety issues ranging from poor safety culture, lack of communication, asset integrity issues, lack of management leadership and human factors. These accidents could have been prevented with adequate implementation of a robust process safety management (PSM) system. Therefore, the aim of this research is to develop a comparative framework which could aid in selecting an appropriate and suitable PSM system for specific industry sectors within the process industry. A total of 21 PSM systems are selected for this study and their theoretical frameworks, industry of application and deficiencies are explored. Next, a comparative framework is developed using eleven key factors that are applicable to the process industry such as framework and room for continuous improvement, design specification, industry adaptability and applicability, human factors, scope of application, usability in complex systems, safety culture, primary or secondary mode of application, regulatory enforcement, competency level, as well as inductive or deductive approach. After conducting the comparative analysis using these factors, the Integrated Process Safety Management System (IPSMS) model seems to be the most robust PSM system as it addressed almost every key area regarding process safety. However, inferences drawn from study findings suggest that there is still no one-size-fits-all PSM system for all sectors of the process industry.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104171
JournalJournal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries
Early online date18 May 2020
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020

Bibliographical note

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 66 (2020) DOI: 10.1016/j.jlp.2020.104171

© 2020, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/


  • Process safety
  • Climate change and safety model
  • Process safety management (PSM)
  • Comparative analysis
  • Process industry
  • Accidents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Food Science
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Management Science and Operations Research


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