A cog in the capitalist wheel: co-opting agroecology in South India

Sagari Ramdas, Michel Pimbert

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The Andhra Pradesh Zero Budget Natural Farming project was implemented by India’s State of Andhra Pradesh in 2016 and renamed AP Community Managed Natural Farming (APCNF) in 2020. APCNF is recognised as a sucessful example of peasant-led agroecology by social movements, multilateral UN bodies, governments, and researchers. We offer more critical perspectives here, and argue that this agroecology model deepens inequality and dispossession. Despite claims to the contrary, APCNF is locked in an unchanged productivist paradigm controlled by capital in collaboration with the state. By co-opting agroecology, APCNF closes down options for a just transformation of the dominant agri-food regime.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)(In-Press)
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Peasant Studies
Early online date5 Mar 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Mar 2024

Bibliographical note

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way. The terms on which this article has been published allow the posting of the Accepted Manuscript in a repository by the author(s) or with their consent.


This work was supported by Coventry University [grant number CAWR 1342].


  • ZBNF
  • agroecology
  • cooption
  • inequality
  • greenwashing


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