A clean-lead factory is available for lead-acid batteries recycling by means of the "cleanlead process"

C. Frias, N. Ocaña, G. Diaz, T. Piper, B. Bulkowski, A. Chmielarz, Peter A. Claisse, S. Hemmings, L. Abrantes, H. Jansen, J. van Erkel, T. Franken, Z. Kunicky, T. Velea

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

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    The lead-acid battery recycling is a major industrial activity (more than four million tonnes recycled lead per year) that generates large amounts of toxic wastes such as lead slag, mattes and acidic sludge, besides airborne emissions. This is a waste-producer industry that needs a definitive solution to avoid its negative environmental impact and getting a sustainable lead production. That is the principal target of the CLEANLEAD technology, which properly combines both hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes aiming to get zero-waste production, reducing the use of energy and resources in all phases of battery reprocessing, and consequently, greatly decreasing the operating cost. There will be no toxic emissions to land, water or air, and obtained products are pure lead metal or pure lead oxide, and commercial gypsum instead of waste sludge. Achievements after pilot plant trials of this new process were quite satisfactory, and preliminary economic estimate gave positive results, opening the way to further developments and potential applications.
    Original languageEnglish
    Publication statusPublished - 2006

    Bibliographical note

    Paper presented at The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2006 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas,  12-16 March 2006.


    • lead
    • lead-acid battery
    • recycling
    • cleanlead
    • tecnicas reunidas


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