3D forensic science: A new field integrating 3D imaging and 3D printing in crime reconstruction

Rachael M Carew, James French, Ruth M Morgan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)
63 Downloads (Pure)


3D techniques are increasingly being used by forensic scientists in crime reconstruction. The proliferation of 3D techniques, such as 3D imaging and printing being employed across the various stages of the forensic science process, means that the use of 3D should be considered as a distinct field within forensic science. '3D Forensic Science' ('3DFS') is therefore presented in this paper as a field that brings together a range of 3D techniques and approaches that have been developed within different areas of forensic science for achieving crime reconstructions and interpreting and presenting evidence. It is argued that by establishing this distinct field, defining its boundaries, and developing expertise, best practice and standards, the contribution of 3DFS to the criminal justice system can be maximised and the accuracy and robustness of crime reconstruction endeavours can be enhanced.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100205
Number of pages6
JournalForensic science international. Synergy
Early online date21 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article under the CC BY license

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors


  • 3D forensics
  • Photography
  • Scanning
  • Radiography
  • 3D modelling
  • Evidence presentation


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